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Teories of Communicative Language Teaching

Penulis : citrapriski on Wednesday, July 10, 2013 | 6:44 PM


1.      Underlying theories
1.1.   The definition of CLT
Communicative Language Teaching is a set of principles about teaching including recommendations about method and syllabus where the focus is on meaningful communication not structure, use not usage. In this approach, students are given tasks to accomplish using language instead of studying the language. The syllabus is based primarily on;
1.      Functional development,
2.      Not structural development.
3.      In essence, a functional syllabus replaces a structural syllabus.
4.      There is also less emphasis on error correction as fluency and communication become more important than accuracy.
5.      Authentic and meaningful language input becomes more important as well.
6.      The class becomes more student-centered as students accomplish their tasks with other students, while the teacher plays more of an observer role.
1.2.    The features and principles of CLT
2.2.1        Features
1)      Focus on meaning.
2)      Communicative competence is the desired goal.
3)      Learner-centered.
4)      Fluency is the primary goal.
5)      Students are expected to interact with other people, either in oral practice, through pair and group work, or in their writings.
6)      Dialogues, if used, center around communicative functions.
7)      Intrinsic motivation will spring from an interest in what is being communicated by the language.
8)      Task-based.

2.2.2. Principles
1)               The communicative principle: Activities that involve real communication promote learning.
2)               The task principle: Activities in which language is used to carry out meaningful tasks promote learning.
3)               The meaningfulness principle: Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process.

1.3.    Advantages and disadvantages of communicative language teaching
1.3.1.      Advantages of CLT
There are some advantages of CLT, there are;
1)      The interaction between students and teachers.
Communicative teaching is becoming increasingly clear feature is the change in the way as the internship; students develop the subject, initiative and become increasingly important. Teacher-student relationship is an interactive, harmonious relationship, rather than the traditional education, the kind of master-servant relationship.
2)      To inform the basic knowledge and ability to skillfully combine the development.
Traditional classroom teaching of English in the main body of the expense of home study, only emphasized the teachers on the knowledge of the systematic and integrity, which is a teacher-centered, knowledge-centered from the medieval "scholastic" teaching methods inherited One consequence of the neglect of student ability. The communicative teaching emphasizes the learner's cognitive ability and operational capabilities, which allow the students themselves to think about and express their views, thus trained in real life the ability to use language to communicate.
3)      Greatly improved the student's interest.
Communicative teaching students to participate in, sometimes accompanied by scenes or simulated scenarios, so that students more close to life, the students became the main character, naturally they were interested in the English language, to learn English as a pleasure.
1.3.2.      Disadvantages of CLT
   There some disadvantages of CLT, There are;
1.      It is felt that there is not enough emphasis on the correction of pronunciation and grammar error. It is because too much focus on meaning at the expense of form.
2.      CLT approach focuses on fluency but not accuracy in grammar and pronunciation.
3.      The CLT approach is great for intermediate student and advanced students, but for Beginners some controlled practice is needed.
4.      The monitoring ability of the teacher must be very good
5.      Grammar Teaching Practices make application of this approach difficult.


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